Exosomes are small extracellular vesicles released by cells into their surrounding environment. They are typically between 30 and 150 nanometers in diameter and contain various types of biomolecules, such as proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids, including DNA, mRNA, and microRNA.
Exosomes contain growth factors and other signaling molecules that stimulate hair follicle cells, reduce inflammation, and promote tissue regeneration. They are a natural body component that could potentially be used as a therapeutic tool to promote hair growth in humans.
Hair follicles are complex mini-organs that undergo cyclical growth, regression, and rest phases, known as the hair growth cycle. During the growth phase, called the anagen phase, hair follicle stem cells divide and differentiate into specialized cells that form the hair shaft.
Exosomes released by these stem cells stimulate the proliferation and differentiation of hair follicle cells, including dermal papilla cells, which play a key role in hair growth.
Derived from different cell types, such as adipose-derived stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells, Exosomes enhance hair growth in animal models and in vitro models of hair follicles.